Monthly Archives: September 2016

What I Believe

“Within you is the ability to change your ideas about reality and about yourself, to create a personal living experience that is fulfilling to yourself and others. NPR Session 614 Pg 24

Then Seth gave us one of the first exercises provided in his book “The Nature of Personal Reality”. We were to create a list of beliefs we have about ourselves as we become aware of them.

I think the exercise is a great starting point for us to come to understanding ourselves and what it is we think of beliefs for these affect all that we experience.

“You are in physical existence to learn and understand that your energy, translated into feelings, thoughts and emotions, causes all experience. There are no exceptions.
Once you understand this you have only to learn to examine the nature of your beliefs, for these will automatically cause you to feel and think in certain fashions. Your emotions follow your beliefs. It is not the other way around.
… You must realize that any idea you accept as truth is a belief that you hold. You must, then, take the next step and say, ‘It is not necessarily true, even though I believe it.’ You will, I hope, learn to disregard all beliefs that imply basic limitations. ” NPR Session 614 Pg 22

After just a little reading and contemplation on the subject of belief, it becomes clear that everything we believe about reality is a belief and part of the complete body of beliefs that define ourselves and what we think is real or true of reality.

Thinking involves Belief

To put it another way; everything we think of as true of reality IS a belief. That pretty much sums up all beliefs and all thinking pretty much sums up all that we are personally.

Even if we think about things we do NOT believe or think about things we consider false, if we are thinking it is true that they are false in regards to reality, we are thinking about our beliefs.

A belief that something is false, is a belief.
A belief that something is true is a belief.
A belief that a thought is a belief, is a belief.
A belief that some event is imminent or about to happen, is a belief.
A belief that we place a value upon something, is a belief.
Values and our desires that reflect them, are beliefs.
Beliefs of proximity, or of what we expect to soon arrive, all manners and types of expectation, are beliefs.
The belief that thoughts and beliefs precede what is experienced, is a belief.


If we attempt a belief that isn’t true of or consistent with the rest of what we believe, it must somewhere reveal a logical error. Inconsistencies, irreconcilable conflicts and paradoxes indicate the presence of an incomplete erroneous belief or beliefs.

The belief that what is experienced precedes our thoughts and beliefs, is such a belief. This belief holds a paradox.

The belief that we only form beliefs as conclusions after thinking about what we HAVE experienced (observed experience) is another way to state that belief.

However such a belief holds a paradox; for if beliefs are conclusions about what we experience as reality and that experience must precede belief, where did we get the first experience upon which to form our first belief. Where did the object we first observed come from?

If we think to answer: our first experience came with birth to our parents and of such we accepted our observation as the experience from which we concluded our beliefs of reality, where did our parents get their first experiences and finally when we ask where of every precedent and finally the VERY first, we are back to our original question with no resolution to the paradox.

Of such is all thinking that bases reality upon the idea of an “out there” reality preceding observed experience and belief conclusions. The concept of precedents in causality relationship is inherent with all objects observed within “out there”. All within the “out there” is riddled with the same paradox, if we accept the notion that an experience with “out there” reality must precede the conclusion of belief.

Only when we realize that we form our “out there” objective reality as an expression or projection of subjective belief do we find relief from the paradoxes inherent with every object. Only then can we answer the question, “Where did the first observed object come from”, “How did the first object gain awareness of observing an experience? Only such solves the infamous riddle that best demonstrate the objective reality paradox; “which was first, the chicken or the egg?”.

All object relationships of causality (cause and effect, precedent and antecedent) were first conceived of in a mind. Every object having a causal relationship to another object was conceived in that relationship as a mental construct with both objects coming into existence at the same time; the chicken and the egg relationship was an idea before they were both expressed or projected into observable reality. The subjective mind conceives of and then observe the mental construction comprised of the chicken and egg. Such it is with all objects causally related within our realities. Subjective reality and the mental constructions based upon it always precede the experience of observed object reality. It is NEVER the other way around.

Beliefs reflect what we value

Thinking is always performed within the context of forming or concluding beliefs regarding our experience of reality and the aspects of reality that affect that which we value. In concluding beliefs, all thoughts eventually lead to the effects such beliefs have to affect those experiences of reality that we hold of greatest value.

Thoughts of Limitation

In any case, the most damning of beliefs are those we think of as concluding limitations to ourselves or our abilities; that there are limitations to our experiencing what we value. If it is true that all beliefs are merely ideas we hold of reality and then experience, limiting beliefs should be avoided. We must adopt the stance of rejecting all limitations to valued experience, if we are to experience the fulfillment of our most valued potential and creative natures.

Beliefs are thoughts about reality we have decided or concluded as REAL

One of my greatest realizations is that all beliefs are formed or concluded according to what we have already decided true. The conclusions we make to form our beliefs reflect nothing more than decisions that we have sufficient references in regards to some contemplated thought to conclude the thought consistent, congruent or true of what we already believe, what we have previously decided or realized as true.

Thoughts play with or manipulate beliefs as we psychologically recognize new beliefs, contemplate the interrelationships between the old and new and judge the value of the new belief to help us realize what we value. This process is called value fulfillment and it is the foundation of all acts taken in deciding or concluding the beliefs we realize. This psychological action is the nature of all consciousness as conscious contemplation seeks to find valuable discoveries and insights from what such already believes or holds true of reality.

Value and Value Fulfillment

Thinking about beliefs helps us find value in being conscious of our existence as we recognize that those discoveries define the boundaries of our own unique and individual personality. We find value in identifying with those features and qualities with which we discern a preference.

This is true whether we subjectively experience value or think in terms other perspectives and objects within physical reality as having characteristics of quality, locality, quantity and space, or having placement in relationship (time or sequence)

Objects have all kinds of properties identified in our beliefs; objects may have relationship aspects such as locality identifying where they are within time and space and causality relationship aspects identifying cause such as where and how they originate and their effects as to what they affect.

To say it another way: In objective reality, objects are involved in action events. Events imply action with action understood in terms of finding value and value fulfillment. We have locality events where objects are involved in actions or movements taking place within time and space. We also have causality actions where these same objects are affected or cause effects to occur with other objects. But always, object constructions are for the purpose of providing insights into the actions and actions within actions where in we realize value as we cognize and recognize the different perspectives available through evolving mental constructs of our subjective being.

With all object events, action occurs. In every action event there is a psychological change or psychological action that occurs. This is the action Seth talks about.  Whether an event involves a locality or causality relationship when an action occurs, there is always a psychological change with a component of value being discerned subjectively.

As we explore personality, that act results in discoveries that change and add value to being. With every new realizing action, personality changes. Personality is in fact action. Actions occur within every action and is beyond complete comprehension for those parts of our psychology focused solely upon expressions of action in objective reality, locality and causality. The psychological effects of subjective action far exceed the expressions visible in objective reality as personality changes far more than can be expressed or projected into objective reality as physically observable action events.

Greater Consciousness

Yet we do NOT need to focus solely upon objective reality. There is a much greater subjective reality of personality with beliefs that are not limited to aspects expressible objectively.  We are not actors acting, we ARE the action. The Action IS who we really are. Actions are the essence of what we are and are inseparable from personal identity. Actions do not describe us; they are us. We are not the thinker behind the thought nor the experiencer of the experiences. We are the thoughts. We are the experienced event. We are the value fulfilled in the discernment and conclusion of our most valued personality preferences.

With subjective reality, we realize being and the realization IS us. We discern preference and the discernment IS us. Objective reality is simply an attempt to change perspective on our subjective beings as we mentally create projected perspectives where we can perceive ourselves as objects that experience actions originating from outside of our selves. In these projections we see them affecting us and call it effect and then look for an external source to call it cause without giving any thought that we ARE the cognitive action, in every recognition and realization.

Expression is impossible without employing the objective perspective

Yet NOTHING, even the objective perspective is ever realized consciously until we mentally deconstruct the observed objective symbolic external relationships into our being and call it subjective personal meaning. Of course, the Calling of our being “subjective personal meaning” is an objective expression for expression is impossible without employing the mentally constructed objective perspective.

It is impossible to express anything without employing the objective perspective. Being just IS; being is the result of every consciously directed awareness. Being is the thought that recognizes the cognitive event.  Yet even in these expressions, Expression, like making espresso involves the “pushing to outside” the essence. In this instance it is the pushing to outside of the cognitive action. In cognitive expression, recognition becomes the cause and realization its natural effect.

In every sense, subjective reality is all that is unequivocally real, since objective reality is only and always a mental construct expression of subjective reality. Subjective reality implies individual interpretation and personal identification. Since what one personally identifies with is subject to previous decisions as to what is valued and discerned of value as each of us comprehend our own personal identities and form our own personalities, I must ask:  can my choices be considered any more real than yours or any more real than those of any other conscious beings?  I think not. We create our own realities, there is no more basic truth.

Of belief, the only obvious conclusion is: What I value is real and reflects my beliefs AND what you value is real and reflects yours. My beliefs are real to me. Yours are real to you. They most certainly will not be the same.

What I believe is True IS and will remain so until I recognize, by my own personal decision, and only by my decision, that what I thought of as IS now ISn’t!  It may surprise you that this I do almost daily. I constantly change my beliefs as I conclude new realizations from new recognitions.

These realizations then appear as new experiences different from yesterday. The proof is in the experience. The experience is the proof that confirms the creative realization. The creative realization precedes the experience. The creative realization occurred as I decided to recognize and believe the realization the experience should be reasonably expected.  The decision to recognize I possessed sufficient evidence to conclude the realization of expectation provided all the intention clarification required for my inner self to accept the suggestion to make it in experience.
I believe I affect my experiences of tomorrow by the beliefs and realizations I hold today. I have no evidence to the contrary! I understand all my beliefs and realizations reflect the conclusions and decisions I make about such beliefs and realizations today and such are always made independent of the events I know and expect I will experience tomorrow and later. I have no evidence to the contrary. Therefore it is only reasonable to conclude I never wait and do not need to wait till tomorrow to conclude any decisions and conclusions about what I will belief and realize. Sufficient are the evidences of past conclusions without precognition that I can decide to conclude I hold beliefs independent of cognitive experience. That cognitive experience always conforms to beliefs realized there is sufficient references to conclude the expectation of same!

That’s my reality and I am sticking with it.
For you to join me, you need but – BelieveIt 2 RealizeIt!

Additional Thoughts:

False and Limiting Beliefs – I believe these adversely affect the quality of Objective reality Experience

Today I am most physically affected by and am focused upon improving personal energy.

I could just have given focus to: I have a loss of hearing.
I have other physically debilitating ailments.

I believe as with all health issues, the cause is pretty much the same metaphysically; we have impeded the natural flow of energy from our inner self through rejection and refusal to allow its’ objective expression.

The good news is, I believe:  We have solutions within feasible reach personally of our own conscious ego’s and intellects. Resolution begins with understanding, observation, concluding decision and the adoption of new empowering beliefs being feed back to our inner being via our expectant suggestions given in self-talk.

On Impeding

In ill health constructions, as also true of our most creative constructions, we impede the natural flow of the personal energy intended to flow from our inner subjective being (psychic energy) into expressions of our physical reality, self and environment. The energies meant to support and sustain present reality are distorted into other hopefully more valued physical expressions.

In creative expression, energies are impeded from where the same were originally intended and those energies are redirected to affect creative changes identified as valued and expected by the physically focused outer ego and conscious intellect.

Adverse Effects

Impeded energy isn’t just stopped from flowing to aid where it was intended by our inner being, energy always flows to affect some kind of expression, even the expression of impeding rejection action. Inner self directed energy once directed toward expression always finds expression. Expression is inevitable. Our conscious involvement in the matter is simply a choice of direction; where and how should the energy be expressed?

With our bodies cells and organs, with those we rely upon for health and wellness, when energy is impeded but not consciously directed to what is currently valued, the body ceases to function with the natural grace and ease it was intended and we experience such impeded and misdirected energy as disease.

Impeded energy is always directed by suggestion (the conscious reflection of our expectancy). The direction of all physical expression is the sole role and responsibility of our physical focused conscious selves. We use our conscious intellect to identify what we value and expect while our ego self is tasked with discriminating a focus upon our most valued expectations.

You get what you focus upon, there is no more important rule.

Yet, I fail that ego role when I focus upon expectations I do NOT value.

  • I am alone and lonely, no one values, appreciates or cares for my creative expressions
  • I have limited energy, barely enough to minimally function physically
  • I limit my available energy by my conscious impeding actions –
    • Refusing to allow expressions that I reject as unbecoming of myself or character.
      I shouldn’t yell at my wife or express anger for treating me with rejection, meanness or unkindness.
      A husband should always nurture and constructively cultivate in his relationship as husband and father. Pull weeds with purpose not in anger that I am not being treated with respect to my role or person.
    • Refusing to allow expressions that I feel I am unworthy of:
      • Others that I value their opinion have rejected my expressions.
        • I can’t or shouldn’t be allowed to enjoy my creative expressions, if others don’t recognize them as valued.
        • I am pouting and beating myself up for failures to:
          Cultivate their recognitions and appreciations.
          If I can’t have it my way, I’ll just deny myself, go to the garden and eat worms mentality (striking out against myself for failures to achieve desires). Seen in:
          I won’t fight a hospital fight, I plan to just die when health fails rather than give my family inheritance to the hospital for a few promised crumbs.
          I’d rather die with integrity to “my faith” that doesn’t appear to work than die while denying “my faith”; what I belief at the hands of infidels!
      • I don’t deserve happiness because of Mistakes that have hurt someone else. ie;
        I have failed to honor and fulfill commitments, Including those I have been unable to fulfilled because of the action of others and also those that I chose to abandon due to I was wrong in making the original commitments.
    • Refusing to allow expressions that I have decided to deny myself for some other reason. Reasons like:
      • Pain Motivation seems the most effective change agent.
      • I am too tired (Self perpetuating) to go out and have fun; Rather take a nap.

Impeded Energy – Foundations for understanding “Way to Health

We are multidimensional personalities.

Our primary reality is subjective. You create your own reality, your body and the environment within which you find yourself physically.

Physical reality is mentally constructed from our subjective reality. Our physical body is the expression of what we identify as ourselves within the context of all we are conscious. Our physical environment is that which we are conscious of but do NOT identify with as comprising our personal selves.

Gestalt Personalities

Physical reality constructs are expressions of individual units of consciousness (CU’s) that have chosen to associate together with other CU’s into psychic gestalts. These mass scale cooperative associations are willingly formed to achieve the valued benefits of the cooperative form and it’s unique perspectives.

Consciousness is the direction the individual gives attention

Portions of the near infinite number of individual units of consciousness comprising our “whole self” are consciously focused upon different aspects of our whole being in forming all components of our whole personality.

Like attracts and specializes along personally identified lines of value fulfillment

Every physical cell and organ of our bodies is a unique individual with it’s own unique identity, personality and ideas of discerned value preference. Each identity is sympathetic to that which it finds of greatest interest and value. As individual identities are able to decide and pursue their own sympathetic interests, individual units of consciousness form into personality gestalts aligning with concentrations of similarly sympathetic CU’s.

Collectively, these concentrations of sympathetically aligned CU’s form a higher mass consciousness personality that collectively IS greater the sum of the individual CU’s. Personality gestalts and the Individual CU’s within them distinguish themselves as they specialize in areas of personal interest and common passion.

Together with other consciousnesses personality gestalts also concentrated by their holding similarly emotionally energized passions, they form physical cells and with other similarly collected energy gestalts they form organs greater than any CU was itself individually capable.

In forming personality gestalts, each CU retains its personal identity and its innate ability to discern preference and individually decide their directions of focused consciousness. All that are sympathetic within a personality gestalt receive telepathically communications of valued perceptions of the mass gestalt they comprise. These arrive in the form of suggestion, expectation and intuited insight up and down the hierarchical structure.

That which is like unto itself is attracted sympathetically into each unique subject area of the personality until the combination of individual gestalts into ever greater personal gestalts form what we identify as ourselves and our individual personalities.

Thoughts began thinking thoughts

As with your own personal thinking, all CU’s and gestalt’s that comprise larger gestalts think, they attract ideas that appear as thoughts. A person need only intend to receive ideas of their greater reality and the thought appears. Suggestions, expectations and intuited insights appear as Thoughts.

As each new thought appears, it too begins to think and the universe of all that is IS available to collect about that which the thought is sympathetic. When we choose, we can follow a long line of thoughts as far back or forward as desire and are willing to give our focused attention. Our own consciousness is unlimited as we intend the direction to which we will direct our conscious attention or focus.

Just intend to think and ideas appear.  To the CU’s and personality gestalts comprising our selves all that is needed is provided at the asking; suggestion is passed both up and down the hierarchical structure according to expectations and always without question that each suggestion received appear only because our sympathetic desires beckoned or called by giving direction to attention.

Expectation – the Error Check for Accepting Suggestion

We accept suggestions received without question when it is clear they are produced with expectation. Expectation is similar to the check-bit with computers or DNA in cellular reproduction. Expectation clarifies intent. Suggestions and intuited insights are NOT received and attention is of little effect when given in gest or lacking the clearly identified object of expectation. After all; who in their right mind with call for and expect something they didn’t want? Expectation is like DNA,

The Ego is selectively ignorant

To the ego that always adopts the perspective that everything which interacts with the self originates from outside the self, thoughts are only memories of past interactions, even when a thought appears to be newly creative and original. The ego just conveniently ignores origin and first cause as with all first cause ‘chicken or egg’ paradoxes. Ego adopts the stance: Don’t ask, and if you insist: I don’t know! Give me a break, Leave me alone! Talk to the hand, I am ignoring you now! Such actions on the part of the Ego are impeding actions. If the suggestions of the inner self are important enough to the inner-self, such become the origins of ill ease, disease, poor health and less than pleasing or desired experiences in reality.

Additional Audio Study:  Suggestion, Expectation and Healing

Early Sessions Volume 4: 

Seth-ES4-Session 161
Seth-ES4-Session 162

Seth-ES4-Session 164
Seth-ES4-Session 165
Seth-ES4-Session 166
Seth-ES4-Session 167-168
Seth-ES4-Session 169


Withing the above sessions we find:

  • ES 149-150 Reality then is a result of the focus of energy and attention. (Pg3)
    To make this clear, I have said that action exists within limitless perspectives, and that you are mainly familar with it as it is materialized along a single line of continuity within the physical system. You experience action then as if you were moving along a single line, each dot on the line representing a moment of your time. But at the imaginary point on your line that represents any given moment, action moves out in all directions. … The particular point, in one manner, is being pursued by you in such a slow fashion that it appears to be a series of happenings strung out in a thread of continuity. You experience action as one happening after another, not because  (Pg5) of the nature of action itself but because of the nature of your own structure and perception.
    This is in itself, you see, a form of value fulfillment, since you are perceiving one simultaneous action as if it were a series of separate actions. You are delving into one action, and within it continually creating action within action. This is however, or this can be, while fulfilling, also limiting. (Pg6)
  • ES150 – All realities are the result of psychic organizations.
  • ES151 – It is only the ego that steps from moment to moment … it is only the ego who probes so slowly into simultaneous action, perceiving it bit by bit, sip by sip. (Pg11).
    The inner ego is that part of the inner self which is closely allied with the outer ego, in that it is to some degree a director of function and activity. But it is not sharply focused. It looks inward.
    The inner ego looks inward, yet in looking inward it looks outward toward those vast portions of the self, … into other fields of perception, or other moment points. …
    Action is perceived differently, … It is speeded up or slowed down according to the scope of perception. (Pg12) …
    There is much that mankind as such will never learn, simply because such knowledge is beyond the reach of the ego. But there is much that you do know that you can learn. (Pg13) … value fulfillment, is the reason behind the existence of all systems (Pg15)  – …
    You must be open, even to maintain the strength of the ego itself. (Pg16)
  • ES152 – The personal subconscious and the ego are indeed equal partners in the formation of any given present personality. (Pg 17)
    The subconscious, even the personal subconscious, is much freer from the moment point than is the ego, and it can inform the ego of important developments which can be of great help.
    This sort of communication also comes close to action in a fairly pure state. There is also another result of such relative ease of communication between the ego and the subconscious … will have little need to make its wishes known in other, perhaps less pleasant ways. Illnesses and various minor and major physical symptoms are often caused as the subconscious tries to speak out, in an effort to make itself heard by the unheeding conscious mind. (Pg18) …
    … the easier the communication between the ego and the personal subconscious the greater the greater the strengh, abilities, potentialities and value fulfillment of the present personality as a whole.
    … It is the failure of the ego to listen to the inner voice of the subconscious that cause many difficulties. (Pg19)
    The desire to set yourself apart from emotion, and to cooly appraise it, is merely an indication of the ego’s characteristic nature. It tries to separate itself from action, to view it objectively, and to see itself as something apart from action.
    Since it is itself action, such an attempt is basically doomed to failure. Yet the very attempt causes the formation of the ego.  Once this apparent separate ego is formed, and once a fair amount of stabiity is maintained, and a new identity arrived at, the initial desire and energy will maintain the ego in its position during its existence in any field.
    … Such emotional experience actually strengthens not only the ego, but it opens communications between the ego and the subconscious, and allows for a much greater flow of energy from the primary source of action. (Pg 22)
  • ES153 The inner ego is formed about characteristics and abilities that have been dominant in previous personalities, characteristics which the entity has developed through its experience in various lives.
    The inner ego is focused inward, with as much intensity as the outer ego is focused outward. … The inner ego, however while conscious of itself, has returned to a subjective position within action, and views itself as a part of action. The outer ego, if you recall, views itself as apart from, or separate from, action. (Pg23)
    The inner ego has experienced, then, objectivity, and has returned to a subjective state. It is a relative storehouse of energy, and it is capable of aiding the outer ego when certain conditions arise. The inner ego may be termed the unfamiliar “I”. In many cases it is the I who dreams, bringing valuable information to the personal subconscious, information that may be then used for the benefit of the outer ego itself.
    … Tension is actions’s inherent impulse to know itself through further action. All actions are the result of tension. (Pg24)
  • Seth Material
    The conscious ego rises, indeed, out of the “unconscious,” but the unconscious, being the creator of the ego, is necessarily far more conscious than its offspring. The ego is simply not conscious enough to be able to contain the vast knowledge that belongs to the inner conscious self from which it springs. It is this inner self, out of massive knowledge and the unlimited scope of its consciousness, that forms the physical world and provides stimuli to keep the outer ego constantly at the job of awareness. It is the inner self, here termed the inner ego, that organizes, initiates, projects, and controls the EE (electromagnetic energy) units of which we have been speaking, transforming energy into objects, into matter.  Roberts, Jane (2011-06-30). The Seth Material (Kindle Location 5073).
  • ES154 – Any perception instantly changes the perceiver. It also changes the thing perceived, (Pg33)
  • ES 156 – Energy cannot be retained. It must be discharged. The very attempt to deny an action automatically changes the nature of the action, and also changes the nature of the individual who attempts to deny it. All energy seeks to materialize itself, which is another way of saying that action must act.
    In the psychological realm it goes without saying that a repressed emotion is never really repressed, since action cannot be retained. It must change. The cause of such difficulties lies not in the repression of an emotion, for this is impossible. The emotion in one way or another, will out, but the difficulty lies in the attempt to repress the emotion. This attempt is itself action. (Pg38) …
    An action has reality, as you know, within every possible field of activity. An emotion has an electrical and chemical structure. This is extremely important. It is not a structure that takes up space as you know it, obviously, but it is a structure nevertheless, and could be compared to the appearance of dream locations.
    Emotions are a quite natural portion of action, and left to themselves are fluid. They have electrical validity, and shape. When an attempt is made to reject an emotion, this does not affect the emotion half as much as it affects the individual involved. The act of rejection in itself is detrimental and doomed to failure, …
    When the ego however refuses to accept an emotion as a part of itself, it tries one of two actions.
    Either it attempts to return the emotion to a subjective state, or it attempts to objectify it further away from itself. In either case the ego is at fault for not assimilating or accepting the emotion. (Pg 39) …
    The strength of the ego actually depends on the flexibility with which can accept and assimilate ever more complex actions, and give them a unity of its own. An action or emotion not accepted by the ego, but nevertheless a part of it, will always drain energy from the main core of the ego, despite the ego’s denial, and energy that cannot there be used by the ego for the purposes of its own purposeful action.
    The rejected emotion, in other words, will express itself in any case, but it will do so then as a rebel, outside of the organizational directives of the ego itself. (Pg40) …
    The ego itself attempts as its function to be the director and center of other functions. The ego, while considering itself apart from action, is obviously not apart from it.
    … so it is possible for the ego itself to achieve the experience of freedom from time and space, if it would only allow itself for a short while to relax the intensity of its objective focus.
    It could still do this and retain its own nature, merely by allowing into its awareness the reality of other actions as a part of its self-image. ,,, no basic reason why the subconscious and the ego cannot communicate to a much larger extent than it is now usual. Such communication would result in the acceptance of additional energy and action by the ego, and an expansion of the ego’s self-image.
  • ES 157 (Under construction)